Tukul, Darso, and Democracy: Opinion about the role of opinion leaders in an election

Elections are essentially held by each nation as a process of democratization in the region itself. In essence Demos and Kratos, as appropriate, that the election was held over from people’s desire to change the standard of life into a better direction. Indonesia, with a presidential system and also on behalf of his island nation as a republic has been conducting a celebration of five years with various dynamics and context of its own.
At the beginning of the election was first held, the purpose of holding elections based on several assumptions. First, as a newly independent state and sovereign over himself, Indonesia, need to fix the affairs of the household in various lines of life, especially concerning Ipoleksosbudhamkamrata (Science, Economics, Social, Cultural, Defence, and Security), and in this election is a prerequisite nation to be regarded as a sovereign and independent country, which has a rule that applies.
Further, elections held as a formality other than recognition of a nation state is said, elections are also held in order to maintain the existence of Indonesia itself in the international eye. As we know, post-independence, the political movement of the colonialist did not stop at physical colonialism, but is more explicitly with the political diplomacy is in essence trying to re-establish a sovereign government in the colonies. So no doubt if the elections at that time said to be a ‘party of existence’ of state, which is a celebration of democracy for the people who claim the country’s new independence. 1955 election was greeted by euphoria.
Elements of society plays an active role demanded.
In contrast to the early election of independence, held elections today not only as the fulfillment of requirement of a country with his own government. Elections that have been carried out for the umpteenth time around is morphed with the enclosing process. Various elements of the community more active role than the past which tend to only be used to select the leader of the nation. Whether it’s political elite as the perpetrator who is at the top level, Opinion Leader, observers of government, NGOs concerned with the political dynamics of the nation, as well as the people themselves as a grass root and the rate determining where democracy are directed. Elements of these communities have a crucial role respectively.
Opinion Leader or opinion leaders are the things which we will discuss further. Obviously with the situation and condition of democracy in Indonesia right now, talk about the general election (or regional chief executive) with the participation of Opinion Leader as a political communicator, there are fundamental things that is in question. For instance, what role is actually carried out an opinion leaders? Then, characteristics of opinion leaders such as whether the people who could be a role model in terms of political information and / or other actual problems?
Previously, first let’s explore what exactly is meant by the term foreign opinion leaders or opinion leaders that. Etymologically, opinion leaders, set out from two words and opinion leaders. Opinion, according to Big Indonesian Dictionary, which is an opinion; mind; or establishment. But in a political context, the opinion referred to here is the emergence of opinion and or perspective developed from the public or people in general.
While other words, the leader, is simplistic interpreted as a leader or leaders. So what and who are opinion leaders that? Previously, there were three kinds of political communicators if we speak in a political context (with aspects of general elections). Namely politicians, professionals, and activists.
In each category above, there is a political communicator and persuasive representation duties. Emphasizing task between source and audience representatives are party representatives journalist, and spokesman who define, describe, and change the situation for various reasons, there is also a communicator who persuade (like a propagandist with his good news), for example, change the point of view in situations particular – ideologues, promoters, teams succession, and opinion leaders who can also be categorized on the part of representatives.
Opinion leaders or opinion leaders can be among them. What differentiates among them is a way of thinking, acting on their politics are in the process of opinion. In short, people who asked for directions and information about them that’s called “opinion leaders”.
The process of opinion arise because there is a correlation between beliefs, values, and the proposal put forward by individuals in public with a policy made by elected officials in organizing political action. From these opinions the opinion leaders to determine the extent of the growing opinion in a broad audience – the people.
There are several stages in the achievement of the opinion. First, the Construction of Personal, namely the stage where individuals observe all things, interpret, and develop the meaning of objects in their individual political and subjective. Second, Social Construction, the stage expressed a personal opinion in public. There are three forms of statements from these two points. (1) Giving and receiving personal opinions in a social group that produced the group opinion. For example the statement of rejection Gusdur in 2004 election results until eventually leading Golput (white allies) opinion among some NU students, where Gusdur as we know it is the opinion leaders for NU. (2) If a person express his views rather than through an organized group but through the relative privacy at polling places, the choices made in a state separate and apart from one another to form an opinion of the masses. Hasyim Muzadi for example, in the last election, he ran a personal volition in expressing their views and wishes as Indonesia’s future leaders. Despite the various risks that it receives. (3) Mass Opinion is a view generally diffuse and not organized and are often symbolized as a culture, consensus, and what the politicians commonly called “public opinion“.
Nimmo, author of Political Communication, saying that public opinion is: “a collection of people’s opinions about the happenings that affect or interest the community”; “a short way to describe the prevailing belief or confidence in a particular society that certain laws be useful” , “a phenomenon and process groups”; “and the personal opinions of people who considered the government is considered prudent to be ignored.”
And the last of the opinion, namely Political Construction, which connects the stage of public opinion, public opinion, and opinions of the masses with the activities of public officials. People in the 2004 general elections and then faced with making decisions that are political (such as choosing a vice presidential / vice president of the camp where. SBY or Mega?) Asked for guidance from people who respected them, whether it is done to strengthen the decision that has been established or strengthened decision must be made. In circumstances like this is ideally a neutral opinion leaders are expected to emerge to provide enlightenment. Why?
In general, political communicators, in this as opinion leaders or opinion leaders, always get more attention when they speak and act, compared with citizens in general are an integral part of the social system itself. As a political communicator of opinion leaders, is one of the crucial subjects who occupy sensitive positions in social networks. In view of the public (voters), he is considered a person who can respond to pressure by rejecting and selecting information that occurs within a social system that applies. In addition, consistency and continuity is another important aspect that makes the person capable of opinion leaders are more frequent at the hearing. Last two sentences above we can assume as one answer to the question at the beginning of the paragraph above: why opinion leaders have more value than citizens in general?
In the 2004 elections and, in general, they appear in two areas. First, they (really) influence the decisions of others; means, such as ideological, and promoters of professional politicians, they convince others to their way of thinking. Opinion leaders such as these further highlight the similarity of ideological frame of his choice (both individual and institutional). Such Goenawan Mohamad, a prominent opinion leaders and the press figure in Indonesia, although it supports one of the party at the last election because there are aspects in common with the ideological perception of the candidate but he is still keeping the corridor as an information source / opinion leaders to those who need it.
Characteristics of a leader like this is usually not too concerned with material aspects such as general professional promoter. They tend to realize the idea, ideas, and thoughts on the changes in Indonesia in the future (although this needs to be questioned again).
So can imagine what kind of excesses that would arise if a person turns out to be opinion leaders who had been concerned with the dedication and contributions to a particular field. Basic question will be back sticking out: is there any guarantee that opinion leaders can reassure the public by way of thinking, especially, if he is affiliated with a political institution?
Unlike before, if more major aspects of professional promoters material rather than as opinion leaders who at least provide political education to the public. This professional promoter fitting emerged from individuals who have a place in society, such as the artist. With its popularity, they can lead mass as a bridge connecting with the political parties participating in a particular election. Of course, with the material that pro-party interests. So popular personification as Tukul be very powerful in the conduct of political propaganda if seeing a trend of an increasingly saturated society will play lip service to national political figures. Artist as a promoter of professional actors is persuasive that the right figure for the leisure class of Indonesian society.
In addition, a second, opinion leaders as well as provide clues he also doubles as a continuing political information developed from the mass media to the general public. Opinion leaders with these characteristics are usually side with the opinion or will develop in the majority. In another sense, this kind of political communicator task representation, which emphasizes the task of representation between the source (the political actors – Candidates Election of 2004) and audience (the voters), with a more objective or rationale for seeking the middle way is the best solution. Nurcholish Madjid, one of the Indonesian Muslim scholars can be categorized as opinion leaders who can represent the growing opinion in the majority (the people), although he is was not fully involved in national politics.
Another case with mass media. In this he is a medium for opinion leaders to express his ideas on some things, like elections for example. In the early presidential election / vice presidential candidate of the Golkar party, Surya Paloh, a leader of opinion among the media, taking advantage of these moments not only for his personal interests, but the carriage of interest groups involved with him behind the agitation program.
Not surprisingly, many strong reaction came from all parties who feel aggrieved, especially among the highlights of the independence of the press as the mass media. Opinion leaders such as these that should be avoided if only concerned solely sectarian advantage. However, more importantly someone who is very great power in the mass media as opinion leaders must be utilized for the purpose of political education empowerment. To inform the goodness of political will.
Therefore,it can denied a role if the opinion leaders or opinion leaders is very important, especially if it is part of a team winning a succession of great party election officials to convince the voters at each election occasion. But among all, voters should examine carefully the construction of an idea of ​​opinion leaders in every election (read: head region or the election of President / Vice President).
We, the people as a representation of the grass root indirectly claimed to be more aware of different forms of momentary interests of the elites. Lessons of history is the best teacher for us, is it still chose the figure from the central representation, Darso jokes, or as an ottoman Doel Sumbang to contemplate, think, understand, and act in a closest election. “Geus paheut urang deukeutkeun, Geus deukeut urang ….”
Let’s observed and surveys the road towards democracy.


ON THE MEDIA: Collecting, Processing, and Presentation

As we know that the mass media divided into two major categories, namely, the print media, electronic media. The new media that have a place in Indonesian society these days is the internet as a new medium at the communication age.
Initially only a record
In early development, activity reporting, writing or journalistic activity known as the acta diurna, in the literal sense means the activity to write and proclaim the senate activities that took place at the time of Julius Caesar, around the 15th century. Now, after centuries past, a daily journal written by a journalist or diurnarii or has undergone significant changes based on changes that accompany age.
Journalistic activities can be viewed in some aspects. First, from the collection process. Forum editors are usually held, is the initial process before reporting to the field. In the forum, the entire crew of editors, both top management to lower management, a discussion about the actual issue that will be shown in every edition.
Then, after an agreement on what the theme will be ‘served’ the public editor of the crew jumped into the field under his job description respectively. Journalist as the main subject of journalistic activities. In structure, gathering news through the coordination process between the journalist as the main guard editorial by editorial staff who are on the table behind the existing institutions.
If the order is sorted as follows: Chief Editor – Managing Editor – Coordinator. Coverage – Journalist.
In the print media landscape, journalists are the primary subjects that are directly related to news sources. Then, the subject was responsible for editorial structural thereon and an institution when there is news that is considered defamatory or make a less good faith in the mind of the reader. Editors should provide a right of reply and correction rights when it turns out has made a mistake.
The process of preparing the print media in general use graphical displays that are categorized as simple or simpler, especially the media that there are formal. Try to compare the national media such as newspaper Kompas, Koran Tempo, etc. Mind. Looks simple is not it? Advanced typography is simplicity.

This is addressed in the formation of a visual language characteristics, ranging from the placement of the letter that looks simple, elegant, and eye-catchy, columns and textures are arranged in order to look more familiar and easily read by most people. Copywriting, or about aspects of writing and character styles that are offered to the public depends on the ideology and background of the media itself. There is written like a formal reporting standard, there is a story with a simple human speech so easily absorbed, there is also a sophisticated, full of contemplation and make shrunken brain.
And then electrified
Like the print media, the basic patterns of journalism in the search for, cultivate a fact the news is not much different. Only, the process presentation that gets different proportions.
Cyber ​​medium and the Age of journalism
As one embodiment of the third revolution after the industrial and agricultural revolution, information revolution is a continuation of the dynamics of human life from the use of muscle and machine to optimize brain and creative ideas. And finally appears a form of media in the information form the internet after a variety of innovations carried out to convey a message to the public. Finally, people also get a new vehicle in acquiring knowledge.
Cyber ​​Media is the medium of mass communication through the media world wide web in a space and time is called the virtual world. This is a new paradigm in the development of mass media that is able to transform the methods of interaction information on the development of present and future.
Cyber ​​Media has the main character, does not know borders (borderless), timeless (timeless), immediately (real time), and speed time (high speed). This is one of the cyber media advantages compared with other conventional media such as print media.
In general, the search process or the news media of cyber systems are not much different from conventional media such as newspapers, magazines and the like which are the means of message construction channels fro communicator to the communicant. There are work processes such as coverage by reporters into the field with coordination through the coordinator’s coverage, go to the editorial desk facing the managing editor who is in the second tier structure in the field editors.
Furthermore, the policy process-whether or not a work worthy of journalism in the media on-line decided in an editorial forum along with policies that are in the editorial responsibilities. Then, the buildings throughout the system referring to the fact the messages are selected, produced, processed, and eventually broadcast by the source through this fast-paced media to be able to be accepted and responded to by a number of audiences scattered, heterogeneous and anonymous. But, in on-line media like this, processing, and presentation of news take place very quickly.
Regarding the communication pattern
The same message can be received simultaneously, a second, and fast. In general, cyber media have diverse communication characteristics, can be one-way (one way communication) and two-way (two way communication). But it usually depends on the policy of the web owner. Because the goal was global. Typically, the communication that occurs within a site can be two way in which the communicator (owner) and communicant (The access the Internet) can interact directly without the need for bureaucracy and excessive costs. The communicants to respond to its information, and appear on the site page directly, through page or column reader opinions available.

Field
Cyber ​​media lately is an industrial area to the world of journalism. Therein can be created information, supplements, consultation, public information, advertising, and of course the new employment in the field of information services. The development shows, that from time to time Internet users continues to grow. Let’s look at the global data center, Internet security services company that handles the server site until February 2000 showed that only registered visitors to the site 8 million people per day. Five years from that year, the number of users jumped significantly, definitely!
Packaging
In cyber, deadline of a product of journalistic form of ‘news’ is a front view, and menus and sub-menu information needed an audience in place next to the edge of the headlines. As the Home page news today with updated news, archival information, was no less important. The menus presented information on a regular basis and systematically arranged to stay in clicks.
Cyber ​​Page views are different from the conventional media. In the view of conventional media page, the audience should bother turning the pages to obtain the information he wants, whereas, in our cyber page views practically lived just clicking on it. And time will be more efficient in the presence of the search engine, in which we live news typing the desired theme, and then, after we discovered just choose the themes that have been filtered. Cyber ​​also has packaging graphics even more interesting dynamic than in the conventional media. This can be seen in aspects of organizing elements such as point, line, form, texture, color, and tone into a structure and form a unified, orderly, and significantly more than the appearance of the conventional media. Display and appearance of cyber media provide value plus a more attractive first impression for the

audience.
Speaking about the value more: Advertising via conventional media.
Laid appearance of the conventional media as the main thing besides the weight of the contents are displayed, so that the average forms of lay out in the conventional media is quite good, good, and creative. Meanwhile, one aspect of the weaknesses of this medium, first, the physical form quickly obsolete compared to the contemporary media forms such as cyber. So that continuity will be very minm journalistic work. Then, if we would look for a topic or a particular advertisement should be searched thoroughly and regularly, it affects the individuals who have high mobility.
The information presented in print media is the news that has occurred and up to the audience who already went to press on the production period, so if there are more actual news and crucial after the production period elapsed, the event will not be contained. As with the site, the news contained in the web pages can be updated instantly. So, the news will be publicized throughout the world with as soon as possible (in accordance with one of the essence of journalism.) Another disadvantage, namely, the media (cyber) this can be misused by anyone and can be confused for a particular purpose because there is no limitation for users who can access it, so it is very dangerous for the psychological development of cyber service users who are under age, if not receive assistance and protection of older adults.